Subject curriculum

  • The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate and understanding of the physiological basic of health and disease.

    The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate and understanding of the physiological basic of health and disease.

    Systemic Physiology:

    1. Goal
    2. Objective
        • At the end of the course the student shall be able to -

          • Knowledge
          1. Explain the normal functioning of all the organ systems and their interactions for well coordinated total body function;
          2. Assess the relative contribution of each organ system to the maintenance of the milieu interior;
          3. Elucidate the physiological aspects of normal growth and development;
          4. Describe the physiological response and adaptations to environmental stresses;
          5. List the physiological principles underlying pathogenesis and treatment of disease.

          At the end of the course the student shall be able to

          • Skills
          1. Conduct experiments designed for study of physiological phenomena;
          2. Interpret experimental/investigative data;
          3. Distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests, which he/she has performed and observed in the laboratory.

          At the end of the integrated teaching the student shall acquire an integrated knowledge of organ structure and function and its regulatory mechanisms.

          • Integration
    3. Curriculum:
      • Introduction to physiology
        1. Introduction to Physiology
        2. Historical aspects referring to various doctrines
        3. Scope of Physiology
        4. Basic controlling mechanisms of body and feed back gains
        5. Homeostasis
        6. Evolution of various systems
      • Cell Physiology
        1. Structure of the cell
        2. Functions of cells,
        3. Cell growth, division & differentiation, variations,
        4. Intercellular communication,
      • Biophysics
        1. Transport across the membrane, Donnan equilibrium, Osmosis, Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Active transport,
        2. Surface tension
        3. Adsorption, Colloids, Suspensoids, True solution,
        4. Hemodynamics
        5. Ventilation through airways,
        6. Bioelectrical phenomena, Resting Membrane Potential, Equilibrium potential, Nernst and Goldmann equations.
        7. Action potential in various tissues with their ionic basis,
        8. SCathode Ray Oscilloscope and recording of Action Potential in various tissues i.e. ERG, ECG, EMG, EOG, EEG, Nerve conduction velocity,
        9. Patch clamp technique, Voltage gated technique
      • Blood
        1. Composition of blood
        2. Properties of blood,
        3. Plasma proteins,
        4. Formed elements of blood,
        5. Hemo-poiesis,
        6. Functions of blood cells, counting and its importance of blood cells,Blood clotting,
        7. Blood groups-importance, type, estimation, transmission,
        8. Reticulo-endothelial system,
        9. Lymphatic system, lymph composition and function,
        10. Immunity, AMI, CMI, Active & Passive Immunity,
        11. Anaemia, Poly-cythemia,
        12. Bleeding disorders,
        13. Blood transfusion,
        14. Blood storage & banking, bone marrow,
        15. Hemoglobin-chemistry, type, derivatives, synthesis, fate, Jaundice,
        16. Organ transplantation, Graft rejection etc.
      • Gastro-Intestinal System
        1. Physiological Anatomy,
        2. Gastrointestinal secretions with composition,
        3. Functions, mechanism of secretion,
        4. Regulation ie, salivary, gastric, pancreatic-exocrine, succus entericus,
        5. Bile, entero-hepatic circulation, gall bladder.
        6. Gastro intestinal tract movements-oesophagus, deglutition, ,
        7. Stomach, gastric emptying,
        8. Small and large intestine, defeacation, gastrointestinal reflexes,
        9. Gastrointestinal hormones,
        10. Faeces. Gastric function tests, liver function tests,
      • Respiratory System
        1. Physiological anatomy. Broncho-pulmonary segments,
        2. Respiratory and non respiratory functions of lung,
        3. Mechanics of breathing: Muscles of respiration, rib movements, compliance, Intra-pleural and intra pulmonary pressures, surfactants.
        4. Spirometry, Pulmonary function tests,
        5. Clinical examination of respiration,
        6. Transport of blood gases,
        7. Neural and chemical regulation of respiration.
        8. Artificial respiration, periodic breathing, respiratory rate and variations, dyspnoea, dyspnoeic index, orthopnea, asphyxia,
        9. hypoxia, hypercarbia, Oxygen therapy, Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, Oxygen poisoning,
        10. High altitude physiology: mountaineering, Aviation physiology, space physiology. Underwater physiology,
        11. Occupational hazards and respiratory system
      • Excretory System, Skin, Body Temperature
        1. Physiological anatomy,
        2. Functions of kidney,
        3. Glomerular filtration ,
        4. Tubular secretion
        5. Tubular reabsorption, formation of urine,
        6. Juxta-glomerular apparatus,
        7. Concentration and dilution of Urine
        8. Roll of kidney in acid base balance,
        9. Renal function tests,
        10. Clearance tests,
        11. Maintenance of blood volume, blood pressure, tonicity, electrolytes by kidney.
        12. Structure and functions of skin,
        13. Body temperature: importance of temp. regulation, measurement,
        14. Mechanism of heat loss and heat generation, temperature regulating center.
        15. Roll of brown fat, hypo and hyperthermia its importance and effects on the body.
      • Nerve And Muscle Physiology
        1. Physiological anatomy, macroscopic and microscopic, E.M of sarcomere,
        2. Composition and functions of muscle
        3. Excitable tissue, stimulation, Resting Membrane Potential, role of Na-K pump Generation of local response( electrotonus) and action potential,
        4. Characteristic of action potential and its properties,
        5. Ionic basis of action potential,compound action potential
        6. Properties and skeletal muscles
        7. Properties of smooth muscles,
        8. Comparison of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles,
        9. Structure and classification of nerve
        10. Properties of nerve fiber
        11. Mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse, Nerve metabolism,
        12. Mechanism of contraction of muscle,
        13. Neuromuscular transmission,
        14. Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical changes during muscle contraction,
        15. Effect of exercise, oxygen debt
        16. Myelination and degeneration and regeneration of nerve fiber.
      • Autonomic Nervous System
        1. Characteristics and differences from somatic nervous system,
        2. Differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system,
        3. Distribution and action of sympathetic
        4. Distribution and parasympathetic supply,
        5. Autonomic neurotransmission,
        6. Autonomic function tests, Biofeedback studies, polygraph tests.
      • Central Nervous System
        1. Physiological anatomy,
        2. Cerebrospinal fluids(properties, composition, function, mechanism of secretion, examination),IC PHYSIO
        3. Blood brain barrier, blood CSF barrier, circumventricular oregans, Neuroglia, Receptors: classification, properties, mechanism of stimulation,
        4. Synapses: types, structure, properties and synaptic transmission,
        5. Reflexes: type, properties, reflex arc,
        6. Stretch reflex, withdrawal reflex, inverse stretch reflex, crossed extensor reflex, lengthening reaction,
        7. Regulation of muscle tone and posture,
        8. Muscle spindle,
        9. Pontine medial gamma facilitatory and medullary lateral gamma inhibitory pathways, plastic and spastic type rigidity(cogwheel, clasp-knife, lead pipe)(decerebrate: classical and ischemic type, decorticate rigidity) ,
        10. Postural reflexes, spinal cord, anatomy, section study ,
        11. Ascending (Dorsolateral-lemniscal system and antero-lateral system)
        12. Descending tracts (Medial and lateral motor system),
        13. Spinal reflexes, study of spinal reflexes, hemisection and transection of spinal cord, spinal shock,
        14. Pathway of touch, Pressure, vibration
        15. Thalamus (nuclei, connections, functions and disorders),
        16. Cerebral cortex, primary (somatosensory, visual, auditory, motor), secondary(somatosensory, visual auditory, premotor, supplemental motor), association(parieto-occipito-temporal, prefrontal and limbic), handedness, dominant brain(Categorical and representational),
        17. Functions, disorders,
        18. Cerebellum: Gross and microscopic anatomy, physiological divisions,
        19. Basal ganglia :nuclei, connections, functions and disorders,
        20. Hypothalamus :nuclei, connections, functions and disorders,
        21. Limbic system, importances, parts included, disorders and connections.
        22. Reticular formation, RAS, RDS, EEG
        23. Sleep, REM and NREM sleep, theories of sleep,
        24. Pyramidal tract and upper motor neurone lesion
        25. Extra pyramidal tract and lower motor neurone lesions Non-auditory labyrinth. Physiology of speech.
        26. Memory, learning motivation and clinical examination of CNS
      • Endocrines
        1. Structure and functions of various endocrine organs. Types, mechanism of action of hormone,
        2. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, and anterior pituitary hormones,
        3. Posterior pituitary hormones
        4. Hormones of thyroid gland,
        5. Parathyroid gland and calcium & phosphorous metabolism
        6. Adrenal cortex- Glucocorticoids
        7. Adrenal cortex-Mineralocorticoids and Na & K & Blood volume balance
        8. Adrenal medulla,
        9. Endocrine pancreas (their synthesis, actions, mechanism of secretion, mechanism of regulation, disorders and tests for diagnosis),
      • Reproductive system
        1. Primary and secondary sex characters. Sex differentiation, Puberty and adolescence
        2. Male and female sexual act,
        3. Andrology-physiology of testes. Spermatogenesis, blood testes barrier,
        4. Actions of testesterone
        5. Actions of Oestrogen and Progesteron
        6. Menstruation, Menarche, Menopause, menstrual disprders
        7. Ovulation, Corpus luteum, Fertilization and formation of the germinal layers.
        8. Formation and role of placenta.
        9. Mammary glands and lactation.
        10. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests
        11. Principles of contraception – fertility control.
      • Special Senses:
        1. structure of eye, eye as camera and function of various parts.
        2. Refraction, refractory index, refractory power and optics of eye
        3. Refractory media, concept of reduced eye,
        4. Refractory errors,
        5. Nutrition of eye and intra-ocular pressure,aqueous humour formation and drainage, ~Field of vision and
        6. Mechanism of accommodation.
        7. Errors of visual path
        8. Visual perception
        9. Ocular reflexes. Muscles of eye and eye movements.
        10. Color vision and colour blindness
        11. Binocular vision after images.
        12. Photochemistry of vision, dark and light adaptation,
        13. Mammary glands and lactation.
        14. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests
      • Ear:
        1. Actions of Oestrogen and Progesteron
        2. Menstruation, Menarche, Menopause, menstrual disprders
        3. Ovulation, Corpus luteum, Fertilization and formation of the germinal layers.
        4. Formation and role of placenta.
        5. Mammary glands and lactation.
        6. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests
        7. Principles of contraception – fertility control.
      • Vestibular Apparatus
        1. Physiological anatomy, Otolith organs of macula and saccule, Semicircular canals
        2. Mechanism of stimulation
        3. Role of vestibular nuclei, VSR,VOR, motion sickness, vestibular function tests
      • Taste and Smell:
        1. Structure, distribution and function of the receptors.
        2. Mechanisms of stimulation and their different pathways. disorders, methods of examination
        3. Role of vestibular nuclei, VSR,VOR, motion sickness, vestibular function, testsApplied physiology Physiology of Yoga, Sports physiology, Aviation physiology, Marine physiology, Nutrition Physiology as a basis of medicine
      • Practicals:
        1. Introducing use of various instruments in the laboratory
        2. types of circuits. Use of stimulator, pithing, smoking, warnishing
        3. Muscle nerve preparation. Dissection and recording of Simple muscle twitch.
        4. Effects of Temperature
        5. Effect of free and after load.
        6. Effect of strength of stimulus
        7. study of two successive stimuli
        8. Effect of frequent stimuli
        9. Demonstration of phenomena of fatigue
        10. Study of conduction velocity of nerve
        11. Normal cardiogram and Effect of temperature
        12. Study of properties of cardiac muscle
        13. Effect of Stannius ligature I & II, heart-block(stannous ligatures).
        14. Effect of simulation of vagus and crescent on cardiac contraction.
        15. Study of effect of drug and identification of same
        16. Perfusion of amphibian heart and
        17. Effect of ions and drugs of physiological importance.
        18. Decerebrate and spinal frog.
      • Hematology:
        1. Total W.B.C. Count.
        2. Differential W.B.C. count.
        3. Total R.B.C. Count.
        4. Hb Estimation.
        5. P.C.V. & Blood indices.
        6. E.S.R.
        7. Bleeding time and clotting time.
        8. Haemin crystals.
        9. Study of microscope
        10. Study of Peripheral smear
      • Clinical Physiology
        1. History taking and general examination.
        2. Examination of cardiovascular system.
        3. Measuring B.P. effect of posture, exercise, stress.
        4. Examination of pulses.
        5. Cardiac efficiency tests.
        6. Examination of respiratory systems.
        7. Spirometry.
        8. Resuscitation: artificial respiration.
        9. Closed thorax, cardiac massage.
        10. Respiratory efficiency tes
        11. kk.Examination of reflexes-superficial and deep.
        12. Examination of motor systems
        13. Examination of sensory system perimetry.
        14. Examination of cranial nerves.
        15. Examination of elementary system.
        16. Examination of higher functions.
        17. Visual acuity, Auditory tests.
        18. Tests for sensation of taste and smell.
        19. Recording of body temperature.
      • Demonstration
        1. Factors affecting muscular contraction, Two successive stimuli, Multiple stimuli, fatigue, temperature.
        2. Velocity of nerve impulse.
        3. Effect of drugs on heart - pillocarpine, acetylcholine, adrenaline, nicotine, atropine.
        4. Properties of cardiac muscle.
        5. Perfusion of blood vessels.
      • Experimental Physiology:
        1. Factors affecting muscular contraction, Two successive stimuli, Multiple stimuli, fatigue, temperature.
        2. Velocity of nerve impulse.
        3. Effect of drugs on heart - pillocarpine, acetylcholine, adrenaline, nicotine, atropine.
        4. Properties of cardiac muscle.
        5. Perfusion of blood vessels.
      • Human Physiology:
        1. Bone marrow smear.
        2. Diameter of R.B.C., Price-Jones' Curve.
        3. Reflex time and reaction time.
        4. Stethography.
        5. Phonocardiography and pethysmography.
        6. Specific Gravity and platelet count.
        7. Osmotic Fragility and reticulocyte count.
        8. E.C.G.
        9. Pregnancy tests.
        10. Opthalmoscopy.
        11. Ergography.
        12. Circulation time.
      • Human Physiology:
        1. Determination of blood volume in experimental animals.
        2. Recording of movements of isolated loop of mammalian itestine and effect of drugs.
        3. Mammalian blood pressure and respiration recording and factors influencing them.
      • Mammallan Experiments.
        1. Determination of blood volume in experimental animals.
        2. Recording of movements of isolated loop of mammalian itestine and effect of drugs.
        3. Mammalian blood pressure and respiration recording and factors influencing them.
      • Bhavesh 3
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